In a world where wealth and power are accumulating in even fewer hands with the passage of time, it is important to examine where centre of gravity lies. It is even more important to understand how this power and control has been accumulated.
The Khazars are perhaps the most under-emphasized civilization in history. Have they got a role to play in shaping the modern world? Who were the Khazars and what is the Khazar conspiracy? All these questions are important to explore.
The Khazars were a semi nomadic Turkic warlike people that lived between 650 A.D -1048 A.D in a region near the Caspian Sea. For some three centuries (c. 650–965) the Khazars dominated the vast area (800,000 square km) extending from the Volga-Don steppes to the eastern Crimea and the northern Caucasus. They acted as a buffer state between the Byzantium Empire, Nomads of the northern steppes and Umayyad Empire.
The Khazar were notorious for the moral deficiencies and acted as mercenaries for any party as long as the price was right. They operated on a system of dual kingship. It was in later part of 8th century when the Khazar, feeling the heat from Byzantine Empire on western front and rising Umayyad Empire on the southern front took a step that is still unique in history. For the first time the whole populace of Khazar starting with the ruling elite embraced Judaism. While the motives of this act are not known with certainty but historians have put down the following reasons:
- The declining morals of Khazarian society needed to be resurrected and their rulers chose a monotheistic faith to instill discipline in the masses
- Khazar wanted to be nonpartisan to both Christian and Muslims, so adopting Judaism was merely grasping a political opportunity to remain neutral
Whatever the reasons, the fact remains that there was a mass conversion to Judaism. The Khazars fought various wars with both Byzantium Empire and the Arabs and gradually got weaker with each passing conflict. They finally collapsed with the rise of the Rus’ empire. Most of them fled to Germany and Russia.
Other scenaries :
The Ashkenazi was used as a term for Jews that settled themselves on the banks rives Rhine in Germany and France in the 9th century. ‘hudey Ashkenaz, literally means “The Jews of Germany”. It is estimated that in the 11th century Ashkenazi Jews composed only three percent of the world’s Jewish population, while at their peak in 1931 they accounted for 92 percent of the world’s Jewry. Their current figure remains 74%. The drop in the percentage is attributed to the holocaust. They are separate from Sephardic Jews because of both distinct culture and language. Judaism today can be broadly classified in two major groups the Ashkenazi and the Sephardic. The Sephardic group is a broader cluster that mainly refers to the Jews of Spanish descent and also includes the Mizrahi (Jews of Asian and North African descent).
Ashkenazi Jews spoke Yiddish language which originated in the 9th century; the script used for Yiddish is however Hebrew. Almost all of the American Jews are Ashkenazi. They occupy prominent positions in governments and finance industry. They are high achievers in field of science, literature, politics, media and others. While they make up about 2% of the U.S. population, they are 27% of United States Nobel Prize winners in the 20th century1. It has been explained that the genetic insularity that is a part of the Ashkenazi Jewry has resulted in increased dendrite production resulting in higher IQs. “The average IQ in the world is about 100, while the average Jewish IQ is between 107 and 117 based on tests conducted over 70 years” says Jon Entine, author of “Abraham’s children”. Because of the nature of the results, that can be deemed racially supremacist, this research is controversial and not widely reported.
Today, Ashkenazi’s can be found in the board of directors of every major bank, food company, finance body, media house, logistics and Energy company. Could this exceptionally high success rate be attributed to honest hard work and a brilliant gene pool? Or is there a secret fraternity at work and positive discrimination at play?
A study that was conducted purely for the reason of measuring consumerism in Israel revealed the strong social stratification2. There are deep cleavages running through the Israeli society that divide the Ashkenazi and the Mizrahi. It is the Ashkenazi that are overrepresented in position of power and professions of higher income.
The Thirteenth Tribe
Arthur Koestler wrote the book “The Thirteenth Tribe” in 1976. In his book, he asserted that the Jews of middle-eastern origin that wrote the Babylonian Talmud are different to the ones that are present today in the higher echelons. He further advances the thesis that these Jews of European and American decent are all Ashkenazi Jews which are the direct descendants of the Khazars.
The thesis put forward by Arthur Koestler gained much traction because interestingly his own background was Jewish. However, he wasn’t the first to propose this idea. Almost 15 years earlier Benjamin Freedman, in his famous speech made in 1961 at the Willard hotel put forward the same theory.
Freedman’s voice was muffled and his stature ridiculed at that point in time. His speech though has survived is now widely available on the internet.
To sum up, according to Arthur Koestler the Ashkenazi are the 13th tribe, whereas the original Jewish people are from the twelve Hebrew tribes of Israel (hence the name of the book).
It is important to understand why the Khazar theory was proposed before it is tested weather the theory holds any water.
Arthur Koestler mentioned his reason for writing the book was to show that Jewish people are not a race. With the Khazars, that was an entirely alien race to the Semitic race and is now a major part of modern Jewry, the notion that Jews are only a race rather than a group, collapses. And this leaves no rhymes or reason for Antisemitism.
The motive of Benjamin Freedman for proposing the same theory was entirely different. Freedman himself being originally a Jew converted to Catholicism. He has reportedly said that his reason was to expose the Khazars and the fake Jews to the public. He wanted to highlight the role of the modern Khazars in the world wars and expose their collusion and Machiavellian tactics to gain power.
So have the DNA studies proven Ashkenazi to be the direct descendants of Khazars?
Well, most DNA studies reveal otherwise i.e. genetically the Ashkenazi’s are closer to their middle-eastern counterparts than they are to native Russians or native Germans. There is all but one genetic study that favours the linkage between Khazars and Ashkenazi.
So what is to be taken from all of this?
Enter Zionism, which is at the heart of most conflicts we see today in the world. The origins of Zionism are slightly vague but it can be said with certainty that it was borne out of the Ashkenazi. However one should be careful and refrain from branding all Ashkenazi’s as Zionist. There are many Ashkenazi Jews who are against the creation of Israel and are antizionist.
Zionist movement in its earlier days may have been an effort for the sole purpose of saving the Jews from persecution in various parts of the world. Today however, it has moved on from its original purpose. It is an organization that has in its ranks not only Jews but also people from all other religions. It is now a religion in itself. It is an organization that is not only self enriching and self empowering but operates through covert and clandestine means.
Jews and Muslims have lived side by side in the holy land for over a thousand years and so have Coptic Christians. In fact for centuries Muslims have been the protectors and savior of Jews. Their rescue from the Balkan region during the Second World War and in Spain in the 8thcentury are just two examples among many other that are well documented. It is only after the rise of the Zionist movement and the creation of the state of Israel in the region that problems have arisen as observed in middle east today.